become controversial. Tetanus bacillus forms a powerful exotoxin that can seriously affect the central nervous system. Epidemiology. Tetanus disease caused by ingestion of the pathogen in the human body agricultural injuries and trauma street, and as a result of the introduction of the pathogen through the wound surface of the uterus during childbirth or abortions performed in unsanitary conditions (puerperal tetanus), and Making the infection through the umbilical rim (neonatal tetanus), or even in cases where the gateway is a small scrapes and scratches, contaminated land. Can cryptogenic infection when it can not find its entrance gate. Clinic. The incubation period ranges from 2 to 30 days, sometimes it lasts longer.
Length of incubation depends on the entrance gate to infection, injury to the head and neck – it's shorter. Typically, the shorter incubation period, the more difficult the case. The causative agent of tetanus, infiltrating the wound surface, reproducing the soft tissues, produces a powerful exotoxin that acts on the central nervous system and cause development of disease. The disease begins gradually. Sometimes it is preceded by prodromal phenomenon – the dull, dragging pain in the area already closed wounds.
Quite an early sign of developing disease is a growing difficulty in opening the mouth – lockjaw, loss arising from the masticatory muscles twitching, and then struck mimic muscles, the patient's mouth stretched in a grimace, and he just back of the head and heels on the bed rests (opisthotonus). The abdominal muscles and achieve dramatic tension and become hard as a board. Because of the severe muscle excitability any external stimulus – light sound, touch, talking, trying to swallow, urination, etc. – is an attack of new, even more painful cramps. Even in the absence of convulsive seizure muscle remains in a state of tension. Seizures may cover and the respiratory muscles, resulting in shortness of breath, cyanosis, painful and sometimes fatal asphyxia.